Category Archives: Higher Education issues

FSU and the Challenges Facing US Higher Education

The Inside Higher Ed article below considers the future of U.S. higher education – specifically the goal of increasing degree completion – in the wake of the 2016 election.

The article suggests that the focus on the “completion agenda” is likely to continue, but the value of postsecondary credentials will increasingly be defined by the employment rates and salaries of graduates.

Fayetteville State University is already engaged in addressing both of these trends.

The “Completion Agenda” recognizes that the skills and knowledge essential for success as a nation and as individuals in the 21st century require postsecondary education.  Hence, enabling more adults to earn degrees – especially historically underserved populations — is an imperative for higher education.

In 2009, President Obama set the goal for the US to be “first in the world” in terms of the percentage of adults with a college degree by 2020.

The Lumina Foundation has set the “big goal” of having 60% of adults in the US with a postsecondary credential by 2025.

The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation has invested significantly in efforts to increase degree attainment. They have established the “Frontier Set,” a group of institutions working together to “…drive institutional transformation and close the opportunity gap for every student.”

Frontier Set institutions have agreed to increase the number of credentials and degrees awarded by one-third by 2022 and share their practices and strategies to promote change in higher education.

FSU is a member of the Frontier Set. Our selection is a result of our success in enabling students from diverse populations to earn degrees.  Our target is to award 1,270 undergraduate degrees (or credentials) in 2022, compared to the 968 we awarded in 2015-16.

The completion agenda has become an important component of the higher education landscape. Yet, many legislators, policy makers, and educators – driven by concerns about soaring debt and unemployment among college graduates — have challenged the completion agenda, arguing for a higher education agenda of doing a better job of preparing graduates for high-paying careers.

Post-graduation outcomes have already become an important focus of higher education. This emphasis is likely to continue.

Certainly, there can be little benefit of earning a degree that does not lead to a meaningful career and lifelong success.

Thanks to the United Negro College Fund Career Pathways Initiative (UNCF CPI), FSU will have $1.5 million over the next five years to revise our curricular and co-curricular programs to help improve our graduates’ career preparation. This grant will inform much of our work in the coming years.

As a partner with the Gates Foundation and UNCF, we are committed to increasing degree attainment and making sure that our graduates are well prepared for career success.

As one of the few institutions in the nation participating in both the Frontier Set and UNCF CPI, we are in a unique position to set an example for other higher education institutions as they grapple with challenges confronting us all.

If we are successful, the impact of our efforts could extend well beyond our campus and our graduates.

Two big goals for 2016-17 and beyond

FSU is engaged with multiple partners – including the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Lumina Foundation, the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AASC&U), and the United Negro College Fund – to achieve two big goals:  Increase the number of students completing a four-year degree (or other credential of value) and ensure that graduates are prepared for lifelong success, i.e., career success; responsible citizenship; leadership roles; and well-being (personal, physical, financial, and social).

Why are so many organizations concerned about increasing the number of adults with postsecondary credentials?

The global context of twenty-first century economic, political, and social issues make a college degree essential for the future well-being of both individual citizens and the nation.  President Obama expressed this view when, in 2009, he set a goal for the U.S. to be “first in the world” in the percentage of adults with a college degree.  The Lumina Foundation’s “big goal” for 2025 is to have 60% of adults with a postsecondary credential, while the Gates Foundation is promoting a one-third increase in the number of degrees/credentials awarded by the year 2022.

Why are so many external partners looking to FSU?

This attention has been prompted by our accomplishments since 2008.  Even as undergraduate enrollment decreased by more than nine percent (from 6,068 to 5,506) as a result of increased admissions and progression standards, the number of graduate degrees awarded increased by 25% (774 in 2007-08; 968 in 2015-16).

Our graduates, moreover, are from student populations historically underserved by higher education and whose degree attainment rates must improve if we are to achieve the goals as established by of Gates, Lumina, and President Obama.  Of our 968 undergraduate degrees awarded in 2015-16, 54% were earned by African Americans, 8% Hispanic; 56% were Pell eligible (low income), and 74% were adult learners, including community college transfer students and military veterans.  Few institutions in the nation can boast such a diverse profile of graduates.

Our challenge for the 2016-17 academic year and beyond is to build on our successes of the past eight years and steadily increase degree attainment by our students.  Doing so will require ongoing improvements in recruitment and retention efforts.

Increasing degree attainment by itself, of course, is an empty achievement if these degrees do not prepare graduates for lifelong success.

At FSU, we have a longstanding commitment to providing both a broad liberal arts foundation for all students with in-depth study in a particular discipline.  This type of education is essential to preparing graduates for success and well-being in the personal, professional, and social dimension of their lives.

I see no reason to revise our commitment, but our partnerships external agencies provide us the opportunity to build upon past successes in ways that can achieve the goal, as stated in our Strategic Plan for 2015-2020, of becoming a “…national leader in providing high quality academic programs, engaging educational experiences, and responsive support services that enable students from diverse backgrounds, community colleges, and those affiliated with the military to earn degrees and certificates...”

Higher education is a public good

This article from the Chronicle of Higher Education by Phillip Trostel offers a good argument to support claim that university is a public good.  As he correctly points out, while post-graduation earnings are among the greatest benefits of a university education.  Most college graduates will have more lifetime earnings than individuals without college degrees.  The exclusive focus on earnings, however, tends to support the argument that college is a private good, i.e., earning a college degree is beneficial only for the individual who earns the degree.  If a university education is an exclusively private good, then states and the federal government would have little incentive to invest in higher education.  As Professor Trostel points out, in addition to earning more money — which means college graduates pay more taxes (a public good) — college graduates require less public assistance in the form of Medicare and unemployment benefits, give more to charity, volunteer more often, and have higher levels of civic engagement.  The article provides more detailed evidence for each of these public benefits of higher education.  The belief that higher education is an exclusively private good may seem innocuous on the surface, but it serves to justify reductions of public support of higher education.

Beyond the College Earnings Premium. Way Beyond

Remarks for Psi Chi (Psychology) Honor Society Induction Ceremony

September 23, 2016

I want to begin by thanking all of those who have been involved in planning and carrying out this program and also for this invitation to speak, which I consider a real honor.

I also want to thank each inductee for excelling academically to qualify for membership in this honor society. Nothing is more gratifying and affirming for all of us in academic affairs, and also for me personally, than for students to take full advantage of the resources we make available for you to excel. You have done that. Thank you!

On behalf of my colleagues, I also want to congratulate you for this achievement.  Earning this honor speaks to your intellect, commitment, and discipline.  These are the attributes that will propel you to even more and greater achievements in the future.

Of course, an irony of honors is that as soon as you are recognized individually you are immediately reminded that the honor is not yours alone. Without the support of family and friends, you would not be here today.

Honorees, please show them your appreciation.

To the family and friends of the inductees, welcome to Fayetteville State University. I hope this is not your first time on our campus. But if it is, I hope it will not be your last time.

As the provost, I have primary administrative responsibility for making sure that we have effective and high quality instruction, degree programs, and academic support.  In my role, I have the benefit of getting to know the work of our faculty and staff across the university.  And I tell you I am amazed by and grateful for the individual and collective talent, knowledge, and commitment of the faculty and staff and department chairs and deans.

Please show them your appreciation.

I want to say a special word about the faculty.  The most important way that I can support students is by supporting the faculty.  Each of these faculty members is quite remarkable.  To be a professor is to embrace with all of your intellect and energy and time a set of questions and methods of inquiry for answering these questions as developed within a specific discipline.  They are your most important resource – each faculty member is much more important to you than I or any other administrator.  Learn from each one – overlook their idiosyncrasies – and benefit from their expertise. You will never again be surrounded by such intellectual power.  Take advantage of this situation to learn as much as you possibly can, try to not just learn from them, but to see the world as they see it.   Though bear in mind that none of their answers can be your answers – you have to discover your own answers.

As I reflect upon this occasion, I am reminded of three of my core beliefs about a university education that have emerged from my own intellectual, academic journey and which inform my decision making as a provost.  I would like to share them with you briefly.  A university education is important because

  1. Of its power to transform the way we understand ourselves, others, and our world.
  2. Of the opportunities it provides to learn from and cooperate with those with whom we disagree.
  3. It provides the skills, knowledge, and habits of mind that enable us to leave our communities better than we found them.

The transformative power of a university education

There are many benefits of a university education.  We hope that each of you will find success in a career – I hope each of you makes lots and lots of money and that you will consider giving a little of it back to support future students.  We also hope you will become responsible and engaged citizens, that you will assume leadership roles in your professions and communities, and that you will enjoy personal well-being – financially, physically, and socially.

The most fundamental value of a university education, I am convinced, is its transformative power.  I was probably in high school when I first encountered those images of Gestalt Psychology, the ones where when you look at it one way you may see a vase, but then with a shift of foreground and background, you see the profile of two people looking at one another.

This experience of looking at one set of images but seeing different objects has always served for me as a metaphor for the kind of transformation higher education brings.  You suddenly see things differently.  You gain a new perspective.

To this day I remember the intellectual excitement I felt the first time I encountered Plato’s Cave Allegory – written nearly 2500 years ago – which suggests we are all like prisoners chained in a cave with our eyes fixed on wall on which shadows are projected and we mistake the shadows for reality so that one of the most basic challenges of life is to distinguish the “real things” from appearances.

Similarly I remember encountering Descartes’ Meditations on First Philosophy, written about 1640, where he said to establish a firm method for discovering truth, he must first find one certainty, one truth that will withstand all doubt.  He systematically calls into question the certainty of sense experience – I can be certain of the things I see and hear and touch right now – well no, because I cannot prove that I am not dreaming right now.  Then he says, even if I am dreaming the truths of mathematics are certain – 2 =2 = 4 whether I am awake or dreaming. But, what if there is some all-powerful, evil genius who uses all of its power to deceive me.  He finally concludes, that even if there is this all-powerful evil genius, it cannot deceive me about my own existence since I must exist in order to be deceived.  So, Descartes concludes that it must be true that I exist so long as I think that I exist – so his famous – I think, therefore I am.

While I don’t accept much of Descartes’ overall philosophy, I remain impressed by his clarity of thought and the rigor of his analysis.

(Incidentally I ran into two former students in Lowe’s.  They graduated 20 years ago. After we spoke briefly and I was walking way – he said, Descartes – I think therefore I am – I still remember it. I wonder how often Descartes is quoted in Lowe’s!)

I have enjoyed many other transformative moments in my university experience – and that is the great thing about working at a university, one is able to continue to discover and learn.  The fact that you are here tonight suggests to me that you have had such moments.  Those of you who went on the study abroad experience this past summer had these transformative moments.

The reason I think this transformative power of higher education is so important is because the most essential fact about ourselves as humans is our capacity to learn and discover and to come to arrive at new insights.  Many years ago, Aristotle suggested that the experience of discovery of learning and discovery is one of the highest and most fulfilling experiences in life.  And that is one of the reasons why I am in this profession.

As provost – above all else, I hope to make this transformative power of higher education available for each of you.

  1. The opportunity to learn from and cooperate with those with whom you disagree.

A university education includes many opportunities for debate, discussion, and analysis of ideas. And in that give and take of discussion, I think we learn what it means to learn from and cooperate with others, even those with whom we may not agree.  Two key ingredients:

  1. The dialogue, debate, and discussion so essential to a university education – which challenges our beliefs and thoughts — helps us develop a healthy skepticism toward our own certainties. I think we learn the humility and intellectual courage necessary to recognize that consider the notion that when we are most certain of our views, we may very well be wrong.  (With more than 200 Ph.Ds watching what I do and say you can be sure that many times that have shown how I am wrong.)
  2. The dialogue, debate, and discussion so essential to a university education – at its best — helps us to develop a respect for others in their unique individuality instead of understanding or seeing others exclusively in terms of our own needs or prejudices. In philosophy, we sometimes speak of the “principle of charity,” that is, the practice of reconstructing our opponents’ views as strongly as possible as opposed to creating straw man arguments that can be easily defeated. This sense of charity is essential to learning from and cooperating with those with whom we disagree.

Note the qualities that emerge from a university education – humility, intellectual courage, respect for others, and charity – that a university education — at its best – helps us to develop.

What I am describing stands in contrast to a troubling aspect of social media that has been noted by many.  The concern is that even though our virtual communities are typically much larger than our real communities – we can connect with hundreds and thousands of others – but all too often those with whom we connect all see the world the same way we do.  So somebody tweets, “Clinton’s a fool,” or “Trump’s an idiot” and thousand people tweet back, “For sure!”

We must beware of our virtual communities serving simply to harden our unquestioned opinions – and make us less likely to develop the healthy skepticism about our own views and the charity and respect for others who disagree with us.

One of the most wonderful things about a university community – you will encounter many who challenge you and that’s a good thing – because without such challenges you will grow intellectually or personally.

This is the second reason why I am in this profession.  And as a provost, my goal is to promote this kind of university community.

  1. The most important benefit of a university education, I am convinced, is that it enables us to leave the world a little better place than we found it.

For this point I make reference to my grandfather, who did not go to college and didn’t even finish high school. Wisdom is certainly not the exclusive possession of college graduates.  By one of those rich coincidences this event occurred when I moved into my first senior academic administrative role and it has shaped my understanding of my role.

My grandfather lived in a small town in the mountains and he was diagnosed with cancer and knew he had just a few months to live. One of his projects prior to his diagnosis was to establish a place to collect used clothing that could be used by people in need or homeless people in the community.  One of his top priorities after the diagnosis was to make sure that this used clothing resource would remain in place after he died.

It is a small example of someone trying to leave the world a little better than he found it.

This story has helped shape my understanding of my role as an educator and provost.  We want to help you develop the wide range of skills and knowledge – communication and thinking and quantitative analysis and theories and methods and practical applications of the deep knowledge you are developing.  But the ultimate benefit of what you learn and can do is not for yourself alone.  Your ultimate responsibility is to use all that you learn to leave your communities and the world a little better than you found it.

I urge you to approach the world and your life NOT as an “all-you-can-eat buffet” – to get as much for yourself as you possibly can, but rather – to extend the metaphor – figuring out how you can expand the buffet to include more people.  That is, to do what you can to improve the lives of others.

So, to those of you being inducted into this honor society today, I am confident that you have experienced and will continue to experience the transformative power of a university education.  I am also confident you have learned a great deal about learning from and cooperating with those with whom you disagree.  Let me challenge you to remember that with the honor bestowed upon you today comes the responsibility to do your part in some small way or grand way to make the world a better place than you found it.

Again, thank you for this invitation, thanks to all who made this event possible and to all in attendance.

Congratulations to our inductees!

Career Preparation and/or Liberal Learning

It is unfortunate that in the current debates about the purpose and value of a college education, career preparation and liberal learning are often seen as mutually exclusive.

As a chief academic officer, I am convinced that higher education institutions generally and we at FSU must be very serious about preparing our graduates for careers. Career preparation, as I understand it, entails preparing our graduates for meaningful work – work that is personally fulfilling and enables one to meet basic economic needs. And meaningful work is an essential component of happiness and well-being.

Moreover, in the wake of dramatic increases in the cost of higher education and student debt, which has eclipsed all form of debt in America except for home mortgages, it is understandable for students and their families to be concerned about the career options that a degree or specific major will open up for them.

As convinced as I am that career preparation is an important goal of higher education, I am equally convinced that defining higher education exclusively in terms of career preparation greatly diminishes the goals and purposes of a university degree.

Liberal learning – with its emphasis on thinking, writing, speaking, using numbers, understanding the natural and cultural forces that shape our world, and other related skills and knowledge – is essential to preparing our graduates for the ever-changing demands of professions and citizenship.

I am very grateful to the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U) for its advocacy of liberal learning.

What else? What other goals do we have for our graduates? If career preparation and liberal learning are important outcomes of a university education, what other goals do we have for our graduates? What impact would we hope to have on the lives of our graduates five, ten, and twenty years after they graduate?

In the upcoming semester, I hope to work with others to launch campus-wide discussions intended to answer these and related questions.

In answering these questions it will not be enough to define these outcomes. We must make sure that we are providing educational experiences that lead to them. And, we must have strategies for assessing our success. I recognize the difficult of assessing outcomes five, ten, and twenty years after graduation, but we must tackle this challenge if we seek to make sure that we are providing the quality educational experience that has a positive lifelong impact on our graduates.